Cognitive -- intelligence
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People to know: Spearman, Gardner, Sternberg, Binet

IQ = Intelligence quotient -- functioning age/actual age x 100
Spearman came up with the g intelligence (general) and s (specific)
Raymond Cattell came up with fluid intelligence (information that fades with age) and crystalized intelligence (procedural information that never goes away).
Alfred Binet created the Stanford-Binet IQ test -- very linguistic in nature and considered to be culturally biased.
Gardner came up with multiple intelligences in the 80s:

Eight Ways of Learning

based on Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

 Linguistic Learner
This child likes to read, write and tell stories. He or she is good at memorizing names, places, dates and trivia. This child learns best by saying, hearing and seeing words.

Logical/Mathematical Learner
This child likes to do experiments, figure things out, work with numbers, ask questions, explore patterns and relationships. He or she is good at math, reasoning, logic and problem-solving. This child learns best by categorizing, classifying and working with abstract patterns/relationships.

Spatial Learner
This child likes to draw, build, design and create things; daydream; look at pictures; watch movies; and play with machines. He or she is good at imagining things, sensing changes, mazes and puzzles, and reading maps and charts. This child learns best by visualizing, dreaming, using the mind's eye, and working with colors/pictures.

Musical Learner
This child likes to sing, hum tunes, listen to music, and play an instrument. He or she is good at picking up sounds, remembering melodies, noticing pitches/rhythms, and keeping time. This child learns best through rhythm, melody and music.

Bodily/Kinesthetic Learner
This child likes to move around, touch and talk, and use body language. He or she is good at physicl activities such as sport/dance/acting and crafts. This child learns best by touching, moving, and building.

Interpersonal Learner
This child likes to have lots of friends, talk to people and join groups. He or she is good at understanding people, leading others, organizing, communicating, manipulating, and mediating conflicts. This child learns best by sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating and interviewing.

Intrapersonal Learner
This child likes to work alone and pursue own interests. He or she is good at understanding self, focusing inward on feelings/dreams, following instincts, pursuing interest/goals, and being original. This child learns best by working alone, having individualized projects and self-paced instruction and having own space.

Naturalist Learner
This child likes the earth's physical environmen, including plants and animals. He or she is good at distinguishing among, classifying and using features of the environment. This child learns best by drawing conclusions based upon known data.



Sternberg felt this still wasn't good enough. he came up with his triarchial approach to intelligence:


1. Contextual -- learning within the environment in which you live

2. Componential -- problem solving; thinking abstractly

3. Experiential -- the ability to create now ideas


For more info: http://www.abacon.com/slavin/t25.html

More current IQ testing is from the Weschler family: the WAIS (adults) and the WISC (children). It measures on 13 different levels.
Lots of controversy in the IQ testing field. Labels, both gifted and mentally retarted can lead to social issues. Most standardized scores are on a 15 point standard deviation scale, with 100 being the mean. Two standard deviations to the right means gifted, to the left would be retarted.
Stats can also be manipulated. A very controversial book, THE BELL CURVE, was published in the '90s by Herrnstein and Murray. Basically, a part of the book argues that African-Americans will never catch up to white people due to past social restraints. See what our pals at Wikipedia have to say about it: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bell_Curve.